Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is now a pandemic worldwide, and novel therapeutic options are urgently required. Adenosine, an ade-nosine triphosphate metabolite, plays a role in kidney homeostasis through interacting with four types of adenosine receptors (ARs): A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, and A3AR. Increasing evidence highlights the role of adenosine and ARs in the development and progression of DKD: 1) increased adenosine in the plasma and urine of diabetics with kidney injury, 2) increased expression of each of the ARs in diabetic kidneys, 3) the protective effect of coffee, a commonly ingested nonselective AR antagonist, on DKD, and 4) the protective effect of AR modulators in experimental DKD models. We propose AR modulators as a new therapeutic option to treat DKD. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pharmacology of AR modulators will help us to develop effective first-in-class AR modulators against DKD.
- Diabetic kidney disease
- Purinergic P1 receptor agonists
- Purinergic P1 receptor antagonists
- Purinergic P1 receptors