Activated Carbon from Peach Stones Using Phosphoric Acid Activation at Medium Temperatures

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In the present study, the activation features of phosphoric acid have been investigated using waste peach stones as the raw material in the production of granular activated carbon. Thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis was conducted to characterize the thermal behavior of peach stone and titration method was used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbon. It was observed that the iodine value of the activated carbon increased with activation temperature. However, temperatures higher than 500°C caused a thermal destruction, which resulted in the decrease of the adsorption capacity. Activation longer than 1.5h at 500°C resulted in thermal degradation of the porous structure of the activated carbon. The adsorption capacity was enhanced with increasing of amounts of phosphoric acid, however, excessive phosphoric acid caused a decrease in the iodine value. In addition, it was found that the carbon yields generally decreased with activation temperature and activation time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to observe the changes in the poros structure of the activated carbon produced in different temperatures. Activation of carbon by phosphoric acid was found to be superior to that by CaCl2 and gas activation. The activated carbon produced from peach stone was applied as an adsorbent in the treatment of synthesized wastewater containing cadmium ion and its adsorption capacity was found to be as good as that of the commercial one.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1301-1318
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2004


  • Activated carbon
  • Adsorption
  • Chemical activation
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Waste peach stone


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