Acid-Responsive Nanoporphyrin Evolution for Near-Infrared Fluorescence-Guided Photo-Ablation of Biofilm

Mengyao Yang, Zulal Özdemir, Heejeong Kim, Sanghee Nah, Erik Andris, Xingshu Li, Zdeněk Wimmer, Juyoung Yoon

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16 Scopus citations


Combating biofilm infections remains a challenge due to the shield and acidic conditions. Herein, an acid-responsive nanoporphyrin (PN3-NP) based on the self-assembly of a water-soluble porphyrin derivative (PN3) is constructed. Additional kinetic control sites formed by the conjugation of the spermine molecules to a porphyrin macrocycle make PN3 self-assemble into stable nanoparticles (PN3-NP) in the physiological environment. Noteworthily, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence monitoring and synergistic photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) effects of PN3-NP can be triggered by the acidity in biofilms, accompanied by intelligent transformation into dot-like nanospheres. Thus, damage to normal tissue is effectively avoided and accurate diagnosis and treatment of biofilms is achieved successfully. The good results of fluorescence imaging-guided photo-ablation of antibiotic-resistant strains methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms verify that PN3-NP is a promising alternative to antibiotics. Meanwhile, this strategy also opens new horizons to engineer smart nano-photosensitizer for accurate diagnosis and treatment of biofilms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200529
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.Y. and Z.Ö. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 22078066, X.L.), and by MPO, grants No. FV10599 and FV30300 (Z.W.), Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2021R1A6A1A10039823, 2022R1A2C3005420, J.Y.), and the China Scholarship Council (CSC, No. 201904910820, M.Y.). Z.Ö. thanks the Czech Academy of Sciences (Grant No. VAJVA‐19‐48) and University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, MOBI traineeship Programme 2019/2020 for support of her visit to the EWHA Womans University. The authors thank Dr. David Šaman for measuring NMR spectra of studied compound. E.A. acknowledges the European Regional Development Fund OP RDE (project ChemBioDrug no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000729) for support and computational resources. His work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic through the e‐INFRA CZ (ID: 90140).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • MRSA biofilms
  • NIR fluorescence
  • acid-responsive nanoporphyrin
  • phototherapy
  • structural evolution


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