Combating biofilm infections remains a challenge due to the shield and acidic conditions. Herein, an acid-responsive nanoporphyrin (PN3-NP) based on the self-assembly of a water-soluble porphyrin derivative (PN3) is constructed. Additional kinetic control sites formed by the conjugation of the spermine molecules to a porphyrin macrocycle make PN3 self-assemble into stable nanoparticles (PN3-NP) in the physiological environment. Noteworthily, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence monitoring and synergistic photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) effects of PN3-NP can be triggered by the acidity in biofilms, accompanied by intelligent transformation into dot-like nanospheres. Thus, damage to normal tissue is effectively avoided and accurate diagnosis and treatment of biofilms is achieved successfully. The good results of fluorescence imaging-guided photo-ablation of antibiotic-resistant strains methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms verify that PN3-NP is a promising alternative to antibiotics. Meanwhile, this strategy also opens new horizons to engineer smart nano-photosensitizer for accurate diagnosis and treatment of biofilms.
- MRSA biofilms
- NIR fluorescence
- acid-responsive nanoporphyrin
- structural evolution