A three-level evaluation framework for a systematic review of contextual mobile learning

Yu Wei, Hyo Jeong So

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The rising popularity of contextual and location-based mobile learning in recent years calls for serious evaluation methods about learning efficacy both in formal and informal settings. Although several empirical studies give evidence showing the effects and effectiveness of mobile learning in general, there remains a lack of evaluation models that examine the efficacy of contextual mobile learning. This paper aims to build a holistic evaluation framework on contextual mobile learning and to apply the framework to evaluate previous empirical research by conducting a systematic review. The proposed framework has three levels: (a) the external level consisting of social, cultural, and technical factors; (b) the inter-medium level consisting of content, context and device; and (c) the internal level focusing on learners? attitude and experience. The analysis of 28 empirical studies on contextual mobile learning was conducted through a comparison and contrast method at all three levels. The review revealed that most of the previous studies conducted evaluation at the inter-medium and the internal levels, and there is lack of investigation on factors at the external level. In conclusion, we discuss the significance and implications of integrating all three levels in examining the efficacy of contextual mobile learning research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-171
Number of pages8
JournalCEUR Workshop Proceedings
StatePublished - 2012
Event11th International Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, mLearn 2012 - Helsinki, Finland
Duration: 16 Oct 201218 Oct 2012


  • Contextual mobile learning
  • Evaluation framework
  • Social-cultural factors


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