In this work, copper indium gallium selenide (Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 ; CIGS) absorbers were grown on polyimide (PI)/molybdenum substrates by a three-stage co-evaporation process at various temperatures, film formation was systemically studied using various advanced characterization methods such as transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and atom probe tomography. The CIGS films on PI were found to exhibit considerable physical and electrical variations with respect to the process temperature of three-stage co-evaporation. In particular, when the process temperature reached 400 °C, the CIGS absorber on PI began to exhibit controlled microstructure and intergrain properties. By adjusting the microstructure and intergrain properties of the absorber films by means of the process temperature of three-stage co-evaporation, flexible CIGS solar cells on PI with an efficiency of 16.7% (with anti-refection coating) were achieved.
- Atom probe tomography
- Solar cells