A review of research on bridging the gap between formal and informal learning with technology in primary school contexts

T. Jagušt, I. Botički, H. J. So

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12 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study reviews empirical research articles published in the field of technology-enhanced learning in the out-of-class contexts in primary schools between the years 2007 and 2016 and explores how the body of research has connected formal and informal learning experiences, referred to in the paper as bridging the gap. The review focuses on 43 selected experiments from 41 research papers, which are in detail examined and classified using the 3 criteria: (a) the Bloom's taxonomy for learning, (b) the intentionality to physical settings classification used to differentiate types of learning in various environments, and (c) the characteristics of seamless learning design. The findings confirm that technology can enhance learning in and out of classroom, especially by impacting student interest, motivation, and engagement. The close examination of the subset of studies with cognitive gains shows that they successfully bridged the gap between learning spaces and that such bridging positively correlates with the number of steps in the learning activity design. The successful bridging of the gap between learning spaces could further benefit from including more online social learning activities into the designed learning process and from involving teachers as cocreators of the learning process and resources.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-428
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Computer Assisted Learning
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2018

Keywords

  • informal learning
  • out-of-class learning
  • out-of-school learning
  • primary school
  • seamless learning
  • technology-enhanced learning

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