The modulation of charge carrier concentration allows us to tune the Fermi level (E F) of graphene thanks to the low electronic density of states near the E F. The introduced metal oxide thin films as well as the modified transfer process can elaborately maneuver the amounts of charge carrier concentration in graphene. The self-encapsulation provides a solution to overcome the stability issues of metal oxide hole dopants. We have manipulated systematic graphene p-n junction structures for electronic or photonic application-compatible doping methods with current semiconducting process technology. We have demonstrated the anticipated transport properties on the designed heterojunction devices with non-destructive doping methods. This mitigates the device architecture limitation imposed in previously known doping methods. Furthermore, we employed E F-modulated graphene source/drain (S/D) electrodes in a low dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide field effect transistor (TMDFET). We have succeeded in fulfilling n-type, ambipolar, or p-type field effect transistors (FETs) by moving around only the graphene work function. Besides, the graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) junction in either both p- and n-type transistor reveals linear voltage dependence with the enhanced contact resistance. We accomplished the complete conversion of p-/n-channel transistors with S/D tunable electrodes. The E F modulation using metal oxide facilitates graphene to access state-of-the-art complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.
- graphene doping
- p-n junction