A quality of life framework for special education outcomes

H. Rutherford Turnbull, Ann P. Turnbull, Michael L. Wehmeyer, Jiyeon Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


The national goals of higher expectations for all students and their emphasis on academic achievement are reviewed in light of the data on outcomes for students with disabilities, A new framework for measuring outcomes along the lines of quality of life is proposed. The framework regards academic goals as the means for achieving other outcomes, namely the four outcomes that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) declared: Equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency. We propose that the underlying goal of education should be to enhance the quality of life of students with disabilities and that the four overarching IDEA goals, as implemented in part by the emphasis on academic achievement, should guide the curriculum and all assessment measures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-74
Number of pages8
JournalRemedial and Special Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2003


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