A Programmable Crypto-Processor for National Institute of Standards and Technology Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization Based on the RISC-V Architecture

Jihye Lee, Whijin Kim, Ji Hoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The advancement of quantum computing threatens the security of conventional public-key cryptosystems. Post-quantum cryptography (PQC) was introduced to ensure data confidentiality in communication channels, and various algorithms are being developed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has initiated PQC standardization, and the selected algorithms for standardization and round 4 candidates were announced in 2022. Due to the large memory footprint and highly repetitive operations, there have been numerous attempts to accelerate PQC on both hardware and software. This paper introduces the RISC-V instruction set extension for NIST PQC standard algorithms and round 4 candidates. The proposed programmable crypto-processor can support a wide range of PQC algorithms with the extended RISC-V instruction set and demonstrates significant reductions in code size, the number of executed instructions, and execution cycle counts of target operations in PQC algorithms of up to 79%, 92%, and 87%, respectively, compared to RV64IM with optimization level 3 (-O3) in the GNU toolchain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9408
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Volume23
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Keywords

  • crypto-processor
  • domain-specific processor
  • post-quantum cryptography
  • PQC
  • programmability
  • RISC-V

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