A Policy Analysis of Philippine School System Reform Using Advocacy Coalition Framework

Krizia Magallanes, Jae Young Chung, Suyeon Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study aimed to examine the development and outcome of the new Philippine school system which caused a national uproar among various educational stakeholders. This new system created two coalitions, pro-coalition and opposing coalition, that voiced out their beliefs about the K-12 educational system. Method: The Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) was used to analyze both the supporting and opposing groups that had expressed their own policy beliefs and utilized their resources and venues to counter-argue and prove their stance. Findings: The ACF showed the impact of policy actors’ roles on the verdict of the Supreme court and public perception. Despite the series of petitions submitted by the opposing coalition against the continuation of the implementation, their argument was rejected by the Supreme Court. The supporting coalition, the Philippine government, continuously supported the K-12 program regardless of the challenges such as lack of resources and funds for the implementation that remained insufficient before and even during the implementation. Implications for Research and Practice: Improving the educational system is one step towards making the new generation more academically and globally competitive. However, the government should be meticulous and sensible in their planning and implementation process and must listen to the needs of all sectors. Moreover, open communication between both coalitions and key persons of the educational sector should also be encouraged for a smoother implementation and continuation of the program. Lastly, continuous provision of funds should be prioritized in every government budget planning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-152
Number of pages17
JournalEurasian Journal of Educational Research
Issue number96
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2020S1A5C2A03093092)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Ani Publishing Ltd.


  • Advocacy Coalition Framework
  • Educational Change
  • Educational Development
  • Educational Policy
  • Philippine Education


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