Background: This pilot study aimed to investigate the current status of e-cigarettes (ECs) use patterns among patients with chronic airway disease or chronic respiratory symptoms and the effects of ECs use on respiratory and mental health. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the outpatient clinic of eight teaching hospitals in South Korea between November 2019 and December 2019. All adult ECs users (19 years and above) who visited the outpatient clinic as a patient with chronic airway disease or chronic respiratory symptoms were eligible to participate in this study. Results: A total of 51 subjects responded to the survey. Most of the participants were male (92.2%) and the mean age was 41.8 years. Dominant airway diseases were asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of the subjects had a history of cigarette smoking, and 19 subjects were dual users of current cigarettes and ECs. Most of the subjects started ECs use due to health-related reasons. When comparing exclusive ECs users and dual users, St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) scores, the proportion of cases with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, and average Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence scores for ECs were higher in dual users than exclusive ECs users (mean 4.64 vs. 2.38, p = 0.006), respectively. Conclusion: Most of the subjects started ECs use due to health concerns, but dual users have more respiratory symptoms and higher nicotine dependence in this pilot study. One hypothesis that comes from these results is that greater nicotine dependence may influence behaviours, habits, and views about ECs. These preliminary observations need confirmation in a large cohort.