Complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1), a member of the CTRP superfamily, is expressed at high levels in adipose tissues of obese Zucker diabetic fatty (fa/fa) rats, and CTRP1 expression is induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1β. In the present study, we investigated stimulation of aldosterone production by CTRP1, since it was observed that CTRP1 was specifically expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex, where aldosterone is produced. Increased aldosterone production by CTRP1 in cells of the human adrenal cortical cell line H295R was dose-dependent. Expression levels of aldosterone synthase CYP11B2 were examined to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which CTRP1 enhances the production of aldosterone. The expression of CYP11B2 was greatly increased by treatment with CTRP1, as was the expression of the transcription factors NGFIB and NURR1, which play critical roles in stimulation of CYP11B2 gene expression. It was also revealed that angiotensin II-induced aldosterone production is, at least in part, mediated by the stimulation of CTRP1 secretion, not by the increase of CTRP1 mRNA transcription. In addition, the levels of CTRP1 were significantly upregulated in hypertensive patients' serum. As CTRP1 was highly expressed in obese subjects as well as up-regulated in hypertensive patients, CTRP1 may be a newly identified molecular link between obesity and hypertension.