A new kind of rhodamine-based fluorescence turn-on probe for monitoring ATP in mitochondria

Yifan Liu, Dayoung Lee, Di Wu, K. M.K. Swamy, Juyoung Yoon

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58 Scopus citations


We have developed a new kind of colorimetric and fluorescence “turn-on” probe based on rhodamine derivatives for the detection of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) through hydrogen bond interactions. Upon the addition of 5 mM ATP, the probe 1 shows a 65-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity and a color change from colorless to pink. The probe 2 also shows very obvious color and fluorescence change with the presence of ATP. The experimental results show that this kind of probe has high specificity towards ATP over other anions, metal ions, and other nucleoside polyphosphates, except ADP. The enhanced emission and naked eye changes are attributed to spirolactam ring-opening, which is pH independent (pH (4.0–7.4)). The more important finding from our results is that the electron withdrawing group in the chain decreases the binding ability to ATP. The live cell imaging experiments in Hela cells indicated that probe 2 has cell permeability, and mainly locates to mitochondria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-434
Number of pages6
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
StatePublished - 15 Jul 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research study was supported by a grant from the National Creative Research Initiative Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2012R1A3A2048814 ). Mass spectral data were obtained from the Korea Basic Science Institute (Daegu), by Jeol JMS 700 high-resolution mass spectrometry. Appendix A

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.


  • ATP sensor
  • Colorimetric chemosensor
  • Fluorescence sensor
  • Mitochondria targeting
  • Rhodamine


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