A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit

LIGO Scientific Collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

735 Scopus citations


Around the globe several observatories are seeking the first direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs). These waves are predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity and are generated, for example, by black-hole binary systems. Present GW detectors are Michelson-type kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance changes between mirrors suspended in vacuum. The sensitivity of these detectors at frequencies above several hundred hertz is limited by the vacuum (zero-point) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. A quantum technology - the injection of squeezed light - offers a solution to this problem. Here we demonstrate the squeezed-light enhancement of GEO 600, which will be the GW observatory operated by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in its search for GWs for the next 3-4 years. GEO 600 now operates with its best ever sensitivity, which proves the usefulness of quantum entanglement and the qualification of squeezed light as a key technology for future GW astronomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)962-965
Number of pages4
JournalNature Physics
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Max Planck Society, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the cluster of excellence QUEST (Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research), the BMBF, the Volkswagen Foundation, and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction and operation of the GEO 600 detector. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the research by these agencies and by the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS), the SFB TR7, the FP7 project Q-ESSENCE, the Australian Research Council, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Italy, the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, the Conselleria d’Economia, Hisenda i Innovació of the Govern de les Illes Balears, the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Carnegie Trust, the Leverhulme Trust, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Research Corporation, and the A. P. Sloan Foundation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


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