36-month clinical outcomes of patients with venous thromboembolism: GARFIELD-VTE

GARFIELD-VTE investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Methods: GARFIELD-VTE is a prospective, non-interventional observational study of real-world treatment practices. We aimed to capture the 36-month clinical outcomes of 10,679 patients with objectively confirmed VTE enrolled between May 2014 and January 2017 from 415 sites in 28 countries. Findings: A total of 6582 (61.6 %) patients had DVT alone, 4097 (38.4 %) had PE ± DVT. At baseline, 98.1 % of patients received anticoagulation (AC) with or without other modalities of therapy. The proportion of patients on AC therapy decreased over time: 87.6 % at 3 months, 73.0 % at 6 months, 54.2 % at 12 months and 42.0 % at 36 months. At 12-months follow-up, the incidences (95 % confidence interval [CI]) of all-cause mortality, recurrent VTE and major bleeding were 6.5 (7.0–8.1), 5.4 (4.9–5.9) and 2.7 (2.4–3.0) per 100 person-years, respectively. At 36-months, these decreased to 4.4 (4.2–4.7), 3.5 (3.2–2.7) and 1.4 (1.3–1.6) per 100 person-years, respectively. Over 36-months, the rate of all-cause mortality and major bleeds were highest in patients treated with parenteral therapy (PAR) versus oral anti-coagulants (OAC) and no OAC, and the rate of recurrent VTE was highest in patients on no OAC versus those on PAR and OAC. The most frequent cause of death after 36-month follow-up was cancer (n = 565, 48.6 %), followed by cardiac (n = 94, 8.1 %), and VTE (n = 38, 3.2 %). Most recurrent VTE events were DVT alone (n = 564, 63.3 %), with the remainder PE, (n = 236, 27.3 %), or PE in combination with DVT (n = 63, 7.3 %). Interpretation: GARFIELD-VTE provides a global perspective of anticoagulation patterns and highlights the accumulation of events within the first 12 months after diagnosis. These findings may help identify treatment gaps for subsequent interventions to improve patient outcomes in this patient population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-39
Number of pages9
JournalThrombosis Research
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
GARFIELD-VTE is a non-interventional, prospective, multicentre, observational registry designed to capture real-world outcomes of patients with acute VTE. The study design for GARFIELD-VTE has been described previously [9] and the registry was funded by an unrestricted research grant from Bayer AG. Men and women ≥18 years of age with an objectively confirmed diagnosis of VTE within 30 days of entry into the registry were eligible for inclusion. Patients with recurrent VTE must have completed treatment for the previous VTE episode. Those with superficial vein thrombosis or participating in an interventional study that dictated treatments, or for whom long-term follow up was not possible were excluded. Patients were managed according to local practices; no specific treatments, tests, or procedures were mandated by the protocol. Decisions to initiate, continue or change treatment were solely at the discretion of the treating physicians and their patients.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors


  • Anticoagulation
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Registry
  • Venous thromboembolism


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