Cancer cachexia is a metabolic disease affecting multiple organs and characterized by loss adipose and muscle tissues. Metabolic dysregulated of adipose tissue has a crucial role in cancer cachexia. β-Carotene (BC) is stored in adipose tissues and increases muscle mass and differentiation. However, its regulatory effects on adipose tissues in cancer cachexia have not been investigated yet. In this study, we found that BC supplementations could inhibit several cancer cachexia-related changes, including decreased carcass-tumor (carcass weight after tumor removal), adipose weights, and muscle weights in CT26-induced cancer cachexia mice. Moreover, BC supplementations suppressed cancer cachexia-induced lipolysis, fat browning, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and systemic inflammation. Altered diversity and composition of gut microbiota in cancer cachexia were restored by the BC supplementations. BC treatments could reverse the down-regulated adipogenesis and dysregulated mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in adipocytes and colon cancer organoid co-culture systems. Taken together, these results suggest that BC can be a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer cachexia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2019R1F1A1059287) and NRF Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2019-Global Ph.D. Fellowship Program). Hakdong Shin was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2022R1A6A1A03055869).
- Adipose tissue
- Cancer cachexia